For the review process a *.pdf file of the complete manuscript is required and
the pages should be placed in the following order: title page, abstract, text,
appendices, acknowledgements, references, tables and figure captions. All pages
should be numbered consecutively and, if possible, line numbers should be
* Abstract: The abstract should be intelligible to the general reader without reference to the text. After a brief introduction of the topic, the summary presents the key points of the article and provides future directions where research could focus on in the near future. Reference citations should not be included in this section, unless urgently required, and non-standard abbreviations should not be included without explanations.
* Sections: The headings of all sections, including introduction, results, discussions or summary must be numbered. Three levels of sectioning are allowed, e.g. 3, 3.1 and 3.1.1.
* Footnotes should be avoided as these tend to disrupt the flow of the text. If absolutely necessary, they should be numbered consecutively. Footnotes to tables should be marked by lowercase letters.
* Appendices should be labelled with capital letters: Appendix A, Appendix B etc. Equations, figures and tables should be numbered as (A1), Fig B5 or Table C6, respectively.
* Figures should be labelled in consecutive Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3,). For the production of the accepted manuscript they should be submitted as separate files in *.pdf, *.ps, *.eps, *.jpg, *.png, *.tif, or *.gif format with a resolution of not less than 150-300 dpi. Composite figures containing multiple panels should be collected into one file before submission. However, in case of figures in portrait orientation with a small aspect ratio, it is recommended that the authors provide all subfigures as individual files to allow a splitting. Photographs and images must be saved in *.jpg, *.png, *.tif, or *.gif format, ideally converted into high-quality *.pdf, with a resolution of not less than 150-300 dpi. Visual cues should appear on the figure itself, rather than verbal explanations in the legend (e.g. "dashed line" or "open green circles").
* Figure Legends: Each illustration should have a concise but descriptive legend. All symbols and abbreviations used in the figure must be defined, unless they are common abbreviations or have already been defined in the text. Figure legends should be included in the text file and not in the figure files.
* Tables should appear on separate sheets after the references and numbered sequentially with Arabic numerals. Tables should be self-explanatory and include a concise yet sufficiently descriptive caption. Horizontal lines should normally only appear above and below the table, and as a separator between the head and the main body of the table. Vertical lines must be avoided.
* Supplementary Material: Authors have the opportunity to submit supplementary material with their manuscript such as data sets, movies, animations, etc. These files will be published online along with the article as *.zip archive (or single *.pdf file).
* File Size: Authors are kindly asked to find the best balance between good quality of figures and submitted material on the one hand, and to keep the overall file size limited on the other hand. Individual figures should not exceed 5 MB, and the overall size of all submitted files together (manuscript, figures, supplements) should not exceed 50 MB.
* Evaluation Criteria: While preparing their manuscript,
authors are kindly requested to consider the manuscript evaluation criteria to
meet the quality standards and to reduce the peer-review processing time.
* Co-author papers: first alphabetically according to the second author's last name, and then within each set of co-authors chronologically. If there is more than one paper in the same year per set of co-authors a letter (a, b, c) is added to the year both in the short citation in the text as well as in the reference list.
* Team papers: first chronologically (beginning with the
oldest), independent of the team author names, then inside one year
alphabetically according to the second (third, etc.) author. If there is more
than one paper in the same year for a first author (independent of the team) a
letter (a, b, c) is added to the year both in the short citation in the text as
well as in the reference list.